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OSU Extension BEEF Team
BEEF Cattle questions may be directed to the OSU Extension BEEF Team through Stephen Boyles or Stan Smith, Editor
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Previous issues of the BEEF Cattle letter
Issue # 864
December 11, 2013
Winter Livestock Care - Rory Lewandowski, Extension Educator Wayne County
The weather forecast is calling for some extended cold temperatures. Over the course of winter cold temperatures, wind chill, snow, freezing rain and mud are all possible. All of these winter weather conditions can negatively impact livestock performance and increase the energy requirement of the animal.
All animals have a thermo neutral zone, that is, a range in temperature where the animal is most comfortable and is not under any temperature stress. This is the temperature range that is considered optimum for body maintenance, animal performance and health. The lower boundary of this zone is referred to as the lower critical temperature (LCT). Livestock experience cold stress below the LCT. An increase in the metabolism of the animal, generally by shivering, in order to maintain body temperature is one method of dealing with cold stress. This requires more energy, either from fat stores or more energy intake in the diet. The general rule of thumb is that energy intake must increase by 1% for each degree of cold below the LCT.
As hair coat or wool thickness is increased, the LCT decreases. For example, in cattle, the LCT temperature for a summer hair coat or a wet hair coat is 59 degrees F. The LCT temperature for a winter hair coat is 32 degrees F and for a heavy winter coat it is 18 degrees F. The LCT for goats is generally considered as 32 degrees F, and for sheep the LCT is 50 degrees F if freshly shorn or 28 degrees F with 2.5 inches of fleece.
The livestock owner needs to realize that once an animal's coat is wet, regardless of how heavy it is, the lower critical temperature increases to that summer hair coat LCT. This is because hair coats lose their insulating ability when wet. Sheep are the exception, since wool has the ability to shed water and maintain its insulating properties.
Wind speed produces wind chill and can further increase energy requirements for livestock when those values are below the LCT. The following wind chill table illustrates the effect of wind on decreasing the animal's LCT at various winter temperatures:
Mud can also reduce the insulating ability of the hair coat. The relationship between mud and its effect on energy requirements is not as well defined, but depending upon the depth of the mud and how much matting of the hair coat it causes, energy requirements could increase 7 to 30% over dry conditions. In addition, there is research that suggests that mud may also be associated with decreased feed intake.
For more information about care of livestock during winter weather, contact your County Extension office.
Annual Grazing Conference Will Help Producers Improve Forages
Livestock producers, Extension educators and agribusiness professionals from around the Midwest interested in improving forages and pasture productivity should attend the Heart of America Grazing Conference January 20-21, 2014.
The conference will be at the Clarion Hotel, 2480 Jonathan Moore Pike, Columbus, Indiana. The conference, now in its 13th year, rotates among Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri and Ohio and features speakers from many states.
Jason Tower, Southern Indiana Purdue Agricultural Center superintendent, said the conference will highlight improved grazing management techniques and how producers can improve bottom lines and animal performance.
"Anytime we can have our animals grazing more days out of the year, it saves money and helps increase overall profitability, and it can also provide better feed quality for the animal," Tower said.
The conference will kick off with an evening program and tradeshow on January 20. Purdue Extension forage specialist Keith Johnson will discuss Indiana's forage industry and contributions that are based in Indiana.
"The amount of pasture growth in late summer and into early fall is not as much as we would have liked it to have been," he said. "Individuals who were careful about not overgrazing will benefit next spring."
Johnson said pastures that were overgrazed the last couple years would have more stress and less productivity in the coming year.
On January 21, sessions will run from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. and cover soil health, invasive species woodlot grazing with goats and forage-finished versus grain-finished beef.
Registration is $65 per person for both days and $55 for an additional person from the same farm. One-day registration is $40 and $35 for a second person. Meals are included. After December 20, full registration is $75 and one-day registration is $50. Meals are not guaranteed for those who register after January 13.
Checks should be made payable to the Indiana Forage Council. Registration forms and a detailed schedule can be downloaded at https://ag.purdue.edu/agry/extension/Pages/grazing.aspx. Registration and payment should be sent to the Indiana Forage Council, c/o Keith Johnson, 915 W. State St., West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054.
A block of rooms has been reserved at the hotel with a rate of $84. Contact the Clarion Inn at 812-372-1541 by December 20 and mention the Heart of America Grazing Conference to receive the discounted rate.
In addition to Purdue University Extension, conference sponsors are the Indiana Forage Council, Missouri Forage and Grassland Council, Grazing Lands Conservation Initiative, The Ohio State University Extension, University of Illinois Extension, University of Kentucky Extension, University of Missouri Extension, U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resources Conservation Service and Indiana's Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program.
Beef Exports Continue to Grow - Tim Petry, Livestock Economist, North Dakota State University Extension Service
The USDA Economic Research Service (ERS) and Foreign Agriculture Service (FAS) released the latest beef trade data last week. The data for October, the latest month available, showed beef and veal exports up 5.4% over last year with the cumulative exports for 2013 up 4%. Japan has again emerged as the leading destination for U.S. beef. October beef exports to Japan were up over 42% from last year, and year-to-date exports are up almost 47%. In February 2013, Japan again began accepting U.S. beef from animals less than 30 months of age. Japan was the leading customer prior to discovery of the first case of BSE in the U.S. in December 2003, when Japan banned U.S. beef imports. Trade for only beef from cattle slaughtered at 20 months of age or less resumed in 2005. A more in depth discussion of beef trade with Japan is available in the March issue of the USDA-ERS Livestock Dairy and Poultry Outlook in a special article titled "Japan Announces New Rule for Imports of U.S. Beef." It is available at www.ers.usda.gov/ersDownloadHandler.ashx?file=/media/1223967/ldpm225-sa.pdf
Strong October beef and veal exports to several other countries were also tallied with exports to Mexico up 72%, Hong Kong up 57% and South Korea up 28%.
For 2013 through October, the top volume foreign customers for U.S. beef and veal in order of importance were Japan (up 47% for the year), Canada (up 6.3%), Mexico (up 5.5%), Hong Kong (up 67%), South Korea (down 6.2%) and Taiwan (up 99%). In 2012, Russia was the 6th leading destination for U.S. beef which amounted to over 6% of beef exports. Beef exports to Russia had been gradually increasing the last several years. However, earlier this year Russia announced that it was banning all beef, pork, and turkey from the U.S. unless it could be certified free of ractopamine. Since the U.S. did not have a ractopamine free certification process, beef exports to Russia stopped. On November 5, the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) announced the procedure for a new Quality Systems Verification Program (QSVP) called "Never Fed Beta Agonists." This program provides confirmation to customers that require verification of a marketing claim that beef and pork meat is derived from animals that were never fed beta agonists and is free of beta agonist residues. The Never Fed Beta Agonists marketing claim is available to companies that produce livestock, beef and pork products and submit marketing programs to AMS for verification and monitoring. Russian officials have indicated that they may be willing to lift the ban on U.S. beef in 2014 and will likely institute a quota and tariff program.
The value of U.S. beef and beef products exports for January through October 2013 was $5.081 billion, up 11% over last year. International trade is very important to the U.S. beef industry. In 2012, the value of all U.S. cattle, beef, and byproduct exports was $7.9B. The U.S. imported about $5.6B worth of cattle, beef, and byproducts resulting in a $2.3B trade surplus.
Visit the OSU Beef Team calendar of meetings and upcoming events
BEEF Cattle is a weekly publication of Ohio State University Extension in Fairfield County and the OSU Beef Team. Contributors include members of the Beef Team and other beef cattle specialists and economists from across the U.S.
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Keith L. Smith, Associate Vice President for Agricultural Administration; Associate Dean, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences; Director, Ohio State University Extension and Gist Chair in Extension Education and Leadership. TDD No. 800-589-8292 (Ohio only) or 614-292-6181.
Fairfield County Agriculture and Natural Resources